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Karakoram

Titik Nol 126: India di Hati

Film India mendominasi persewaan VCD di Pakistan (AGUSTINUS WIBOWO) India adalah musuh bebuyutan Pakistan. Jutaan dolar dihabiskan Pakistan untuk membangun pertahanan kuat menghadapi negeri tetangganya yang raksasa itu. Tetapi saya masih merasakan jiwa India hidup di sini. Karimabad mungkin adalah sebuah dusun kecil yang terlupakan dalam peta dunia. Kehidupan tenang tanpa gelora mengalir lambat di lereng pegunungan yang hening dan sejuk ini. Salju yang sejak kemarin mengguyur Karakoram menjadikan tempat ini terbungkus putih yang sempurna. Di tengah kesepian itu, menyeruak lagu Bollywood dari televisi kabel. Salman Khan beradu dengan Akshay Kumar di tepi pantai, menarik-narik lengan Priyanka Chopra seperti lomba tarik tambang. Mereka berdendang riang, Mujhse Shaadi Karogi…, Menikahlah Denganku…. Sejurus berikutnya, gambar berganti dengan panggung gegap gempita. Emran Hashmi, sang superstar Bombay yang selalu tampil dalam film-film seksi, menjadi bintang lagu Aashiq Banaya Aap Ne, Kau Jadikan Aku Kekasih, soundtrack dari film berjudul sama. Ketika saya di Rajasthan beberapa bulan lalu, semua orang memutar lagu ini. Dari radio, televisi, sampai ke pedagang kaki lima di pinggir jalan semua memutar Aashiq Banaya berulang-ulang. Selang berapa bulan, di Pakistan lagu ini juga meledak. Kakek Haider dan kawan-kawannya, sekelompok lelaki tua berjenggot, datang ke pondok. Begitu listrik datang, mereka bersorak. Televisi langsung [...]

February 16, 2015 // 0 Comments

Titik Nol 122: Senandung Dalam Gelap

Orang Pakistan tidak pernah bermain-main ketika menyebut kata ‘mehman’. Arti harafiahnya tamu. Kata itu menyiratkan penghormatan yang luar biasa kepada musafir, kemurahan hati sebagai bagian dari ibadah, dan ketulusan untuk menolong sesama. Pemuda ini bernama Majid. Umurnya baru 22 tahun, tetapi bahasa Inggrisnya sudah cukup bagus. Tubuhnya besar, dan kegemarannya adalah tertawa di akhir setiap kalimat yang diucapkannya, dengan tubuh sampai berguncang-guncang saking hebatnya. Dengan penuh sabar ia menjelaskan setiap detail rumah itu. “Ini adalah rumah Tajik,” katanya bak seorang guide, “ di ruangan ini ada lima pilar, masing-masing melambangkan Muhammad, Ali, Hassan, Hussain, dan Fatima. Di pintu masuk itu ada dua pilar yang berdekatan, melambangkan Hassan dan Hussain – kedua putra Ali. “Kamu tahu, di ruangan ini kami menari kalau ada acara pernikahan,” terang Majid. Tubuhnya terguncang-guncang, tertawa terpingkal-pingkal, seringkali untuk hal yang saya juga tidak mengerti di mana lucunya. Ruangan itu berbentuk segi empat. Gelap pekat. Cahaya hanya muncul dari api yang membara di tengah ruangan. Di ketiga sisi ruangan ada panggung dari tanah liat untuk tempat duduk para tamu, atau tempat tidur keluarga di malam hari. Di sisi keempat ada panggung tanah liat juga. Tempatnya lebih tinggi, tengahnya berongga. Inilah tempat kayu kering. Api dinyalakan. Poci teh [...]

February 10, 2015 // 3 Comments

Titik Nol 117: Melek Huruf

Di sini semua orang bisa baca tulis Penderitaan di Karimabad yang membeku tidaklah sia-sia. Di sinilah Al menemukan jati dirinya yang selama ini ia cari. Di sinilah ia menemukan komunitas saudara-saudari seiman. Al tak jadi pindah pemondokan. Semua pemondokan sama dinginnya, bahkan Hunza Darbar yang tarifnya 40 dolar per malam itu pun tak punya listrik dan pemanas. Tak ada pesawat ke Islamabad, karena cuaca buruk di musim dingin di daerah yang diapit gunung-gunung bertudung salju sungguh berbahaya bagi penerbangan. Daripada berdiam diri di Karimabad, kami turun ke desa di kaki bukit. Namanya Ganesh, entah kenapa mirip nama dewa Hindu. Kalau di Karimabad penduduknya semua Ismaili, hanya beberapa ratus meter saja di desa Ganesh ini penduduknya penganut Syiah. Kakek Haider sebenarnya adalah penganut Syiah, tetapi Al terlanjur menganggapnya sebagai pemeluk Ismaili dan masih terpesona dalam kegembiraan hidup bersama komunitas orang-orang seiman. Biarlah, biar Al hidup dalam euforianya. Dari Ganesh, kami naik kendaraan Suzuki sampai ke desa berikutnya, Aliabad. Di Pakistan, orang biasa menyebut kendaraan umum menurut merknya. Yang dimaksud Suzuki adalah mobil pickup ukuran kecil. Bagian belakangnya dikasih terpal, untuk tempat duduk penumpang. Kalau tidak cukup, penumpang pria sampai duduk di atap atau berdiri di luar, bergelantungan pada besi bak belakang. [...]

February 3, 2015 // 0 Comments

Titik Nol 116: Karakoram Highway

Kakek tua Haider (AGUSTINUS WIBOWO) Di bawah gunung bertudung salju setinggi 7.790 meter, Desa Karimabad diam dalam keheningan. Di sini waktu mengalir lambat-lambat, ditelan keagungan puncak-puncak raksasa. Di bawah sana terhampar Lembah Hunza—terletak di utara Pakistan, diapit tiga gunung besar: Himalaya, Karakoram, dan Pamir. Jalan raya Karakoram Highway berkelok di pinggang gunung, menghubungkan Islamabad—ibu kota Pakistan—dengan kota kuno Kashgar di negeri Tiongkok. “Perjalanan yang benar-benar menyakitkan,” keluh Al, “Saya memang sudah tua. Perjalanan seperti ini sudah bukan untuk umurku lagi.” Saya dan Al baru saja menempuh perjalanan panjang sampai ke dusun Karimabad di jantung Lembah Hunza. Tujuh jam perjalanan Lahore–Rawalpindi plus 22 jam dengan bus menyusuri Karakoram Highway, dan masih ditambah lagi dua jam perjalanan sampai ke Karimabad. Jalannya berkelak-kelok, naik turun, bolong-bolong. Namanya juga jalan gunung. Gunung-gunung di bagian utara Pakistan mengisolasi wilayah pedesaan di seluruh provinsi Northern Areas (NA) di dataran tinggi ini. Ajaib, di liukan tajam punggung bukit, di tepi jurang dengan air sungai yang menggelegak, bisa dibangun jalan raya beraspal yang menghubungkan Pakistan-China, menghidupkan kembali perdagangan Jalur Sutra, dan menyembulkan dusun-dusun Hunza ke atas peta. Namun, bagi Al, itu adalah siksaan. Tak pernah ia semenderita ini. “Masa tak ada pesawat terbang ke Gilgit?” ia mengeluh lagi. [...]

February 2, 2015 // 5 Comments

Titik Nol 115: Mencari Identitas

  Sudahkah saya seperti orang Pakistan? (AGUSTINUS WIBOWO) “Bhai jan, aku sudah seperti orang Pakistan? Bagus tidak?” tanya pria Inggris ini kepada sopir rickshaw, memamerkan pakaian shalwar kamiz yang baru saja didapat dari tukang jahit seharga 1.000 Rupee. Bukan hanya sopir rickshaw, tapi semua orang Pakistan yang dijumpai – tukang jual pisang, penjaga losmen, toko obat, sopir taksi, kondektur bus,… Namanya Al Malik, warga negara Inggris keturunan Pakistan. Umurnya tiga puluhan, tetapi masih belum menikah. Tubuhnya tambun, wajahnya ditumbuhi kumis dan jenggot pendek, tajam-tajam seperti duri. Pandangannya menghunus tajam dari matanya yang berwarna coklat indah itu. Saya pertama kali berjumpa dengannya dalam pertunjukan malam Sufi, di mana ia terpesona oleh suasan mistis yang menghanyutkan. Juga meriahnya musik qawwali yang membuatnya merasa telah mencapai tujuan perjalanannya. Dalam sebulan terakhir, Al telah  mengunjungi empat negara Muslim – Turki, Suriah, Iran, dan sekarang Pakistan. “Suriah, aha, negara itu sangat bebas. Tehran sangat modern. Tetapi justru di sini, di Pakistan, aku menemukan apa yang aku cari. Kesenian Islam modern yang inovatif!” katanya dalam bahasa Inggris dengan logat Britania yang kental. Al, menurut pengakuannya sendiri, adalah pengamat seni. Ia mengunjungi negeri-negeri Muslim untuk mencari kesenian Islam kontemporer, modern, yang bakal digemari penikmat seni Eropa. Kemarin [...]

January 30, 2015 // 10 Comments

Children of Gilgit

Gilgit is the closest big town from Karimabad, as well as the center of business and government of Northern Areas of Pakistan.   There, under the shades of the mountains, you will freeze at the land with no sunshine… People of Hunza in Northern Pakistan warned me when I attempted to move further north, closer to the mountainous border of China and Afghanistan. Hunza and Gojal in Northern Areas of Pakistan (now known as Gilgit Baltistan province) are blessed (or cursed?) by snowcapped mountain ranges, among the highest in the world. They are majestic heavenly scenery, potential to attract international tourists, but with current situation in Pakistan, tourism is not in good shape anyway. While most tourists come in summer, I arrived in Chapursan in winter, when sunshine does not come to villages for two and a half months continuously. Unlike most parts of Pakistan, the people in Hunza and Gojal believe in Ismaili sect of Islam, which are very moderate and forward-looking. Good education to both boys and girls result in the highest literacy rate nationwide. The Ismiali spiritual leader, His Highness Aga Khan insisted that girl education has to be prioritized as woman will teach the whole family. [...]

January 11, 2015 // 0 Comments

Festivities

Wedding is always a happy and merry occasion in Hunza. People dance and drink “Hunza water” (alcoholic drink) until late midnight.   There, under the shades of the mountains, you will freeze at the land with no sunshine… People of Hunza in Northern Pakistan warned me when I attempted to move further north, closer to the mountainous border of China and Afghanistan. Hunza and Gojal in Northern Areas of Pakistan (now known as Gilgit Baltistan province) are blessed (or cursed?) by snowcapped mountain ranges, among the highest in the world. They are majestic heavenly scenery, potential to attract international tourists, but with current situation in Pakistan, tourism is not in good shape anyway. While most tourists come in summer, I arrived in Chapursan in winter, when sunshine does not come to villages for two and a half months continuously. Unlike most parts of Pakistan, the people in Hunza and Gojal believe in Ismaili sect of Islam, which are very moderate and forward-looking. Good education to both boys and girls result in the highest literacy rate nationwide. The Ismiali spiritual leader, His Highness Aga Khan insisted that girl education has to be prioritized as woman will teach the whole family. Mehmannavazi, [...]

January 11, 2015 // 0 Comments

Coming to New Home

Bride arrives in Karimabad, the house of her newly-wed husband. Starting from today, this village will be her new home.   There, under the shades of the mountains, you will freeze at the land with no sunshine… People of Hunza in Northern Pakistan warned me when I attempted to move further north, closer to the mountainous border of China and Afghanistan. Hunza and Gojal in Northern Areas of Pakistan (now known as Gilgit Baltistan province) are blessed (or cursed?) by snowcapped mountain ranges, among the highest in the world. They are majestic heavenly scenery, potential to attract international tourists, but with current situation in Pakistan, tourism is not in good shape anyway. While most tourists come in summer, I arrived in Chapursan in winter, when sunshine does not come to villages for two and a half months continuously. Unlike most parts of Pakistan, the people in Hunza and Gojal believe in Ismaili sect of Islam, which are very moderate and forward-looking. Good education to both boys and girls result in the highest literacy rate nationwide. The Ismiali spiritual leader, His Highness Aga Khan insisted that girl education has to be prioritized as woman will teach the whole family. Mehmannavazi, or [...]

January 11, 2015 // 0 Comments

United Color of Hunza

Colors riot in grey and shadow. The women of Karimabad went out, filled the alleys and climbed to rooftops, just to see how the arriving bride looks like.   There, under the shades of the mountains, you will freeze at the land with no sunshine… People of Hunza in Northern Pakistan warned me when I attempted to move further north, closer to the mountainous border of China and Afghanistan. Hunza and Gojal in Northern Areas of Pakistan (now known as Gilgit Baltistan province) are blessed (or cursed?) by snowcapped mountain ranges, among the highest in the world. They are majestic heavenly scenery, potential to attract international tourists, but with current situation in Pakistan, tourism is not in good shape anyway. While most tourists come in summer, I arrived in Chapursan in winter, when sunshine does not come to villages for two and a half months continuously. Unlike most parts of Pakistan, the people in Hunza and Gojal believe in Ismaili sect of Islam, which are very moderate and forward-looking. Good education to both boys and girls result in the highest literacy rate nationwide. The Ismiali spiritual leader, His Highness Aga Khan insisted that girl education has to be prioritized as [...]

January 11, 2015 // 0 Comments

Dowry

The family of the bride prepares a truck load of jehez (dowry from the female side). The dowry consists mostly of daily needs for their daughter. In Indian Subcontinent, dowry is a main issue in most marriages. The government of Pakistan has issued law to limit the value of dowry allowed in a wedding.   There, under the shades of the mountains, you will freeze at the land with no sunshine… People of Hunza in Northern Pakistan warned me when I attempted to move further north, closer to the mountainous border of China and Afghanistan. Hunza and Gojal in Northern Areas of Pakistan (now known as Gilgit Baltistan province) are blessed (or cursed?) by snowcapped mountain ranges, among the highest in the world. They are majestic heavenly scenery, potential to attract international tourists, but with current situation in Pakistan, tourism is not in good shape anyway. While most tourists come in summer, I arrived in Chapursan in winter, when sunshine does not come to villages for two and a half months continuously. Unlike most parts of Pakistan, the people in Hunza and Gojal believe in Ismaili sect of Islam, which are very moderate and forward-looking. Good education to both boys [...]

January 11, 2015 // 0 Comments

Welcoming the Groom

The groom and his family departed from Karimabad to the bride’s house in Hassanabad. The groom family is welcomed with delicacies and lavish lunch.   There, under the shades of the mountains, you will freeze at the land with no sunshine… People of Hunza in Northern Pakistan warned me when I attempted to move further north, closer to the mountainous border of China and Afghanistan. Hunza and Gojal in Northern Areas of Pakistan (now known as Gilgit Baltistan province) are blessed (or cursed?) by snowcapped mountain ranges, among the highest in the world. They are majestic heavenly scenery, potential to attract international tourists, but with current situation in Pakistan, tourism is not in good shape anyway. While most tourists come in summer, I arrived in Chapursan in winter, when sunshine does not come to villages for two and a half months continuously. Unlike most parts of Pakistan, the people in Hunza and Gojal believe in Ismaili sect of Islam, which are very moderate and forward-looking. Good education to both boys and girls result in the highest literacy rate nationwide. The Ismiali spiritual leader, His Highness Aga Khan insisted that girl education has to be prioritized as woman will teach the [...]

January 11, 2015 // 0 Comments

Traditional Dance

The traditional dance of Hunza imitates the movement of an eagle. Only men are allowed to dance.   There, under the shades of the mountains, you will freeze at the land with no sunshine… People of Hunza in Northern Pakistan warned me when I attempted to move further north, closer to the mountainous border of China and Afghanistan. Hunza and Gojal in Northern Areas of Pakistan (now known as Gilgit Baltistan province) are blessed (or cursed?) by snowcapped mountain ranges, among the highest in the world. They are majestic heavenly scenery, potential to attract international tourists, but with current situation in Pakistan, tourism is not in good shape anyway. While most tourists come in summer, I arrived in Chapursan in winter, when sunshine does not come to villages for two and a half months continuously. Unlike most parts of Pakistan, the people in Hunza and Gojal believe in Ismaili sect of Islam, which are very moderate and forward-looking. Good education to both boys and girls result in the highest literacy rate nationwide. The Ismiali spiritual leader, His Highness Aga Khan insisted that girl education has to be prioritized as woman will teach the whole family. Mehmannavazi, or hospitality, is the [...]

January 11, 2015 // 0 Comments

Enjoy the Party

The villagers enjoy the noisy celebration of a wedding in Karimabad, Hunza. The usually quite and cold winter days suddenly turned to a party mood.   There, under the shades of the mountains, you will freeze at the land with no sunshine… People of Hunza in Northern Pakistan warned me when I attempted to move further north, closer to the mountainous border of China and Afghanistan. Hunza and Gojal in Northern Areas of Pakistan (now known as Gilgit Baltistan province) are blessed (or cursed?) by snowcapped mountain ranges, among the highest in the world. They are majestic heavenly scenery, potential to attract international tourists, but with current situation in Pakistan, tourism is not in good shape anyway. While most tourists come in summer, I arrived in Chapursan in winter, when sunshine does not come to villages for two and a half months continuously. Unlike most parts of Pakistan, the people in Hunza and Gojal believe in Ismaili sect of Islam, which are very moderate and forward-looking. Good education to both boys and girls result in the highest literacy rate nationwide. The Ismiali spiritual leader, His Highness Aga Khan insisted that girl education has to be prioritized as woman will teach [...]

January 11, 2015 // 0 Comments

Go Pick Your Wife

Parents prepare groom with traditional dresses. After some rituals in their house, the groom and family will depart to the bride’s house to pick her home.   There, under the shades of the mountains, you will freeze at the land with no sunshine… People of Hunza in Northern Pakistan warned me when I attempted to move further north, closer to the mountainous border of China and Afghanistan. Hunza and Gojal in Northern Areas of Pakistan (now known as Gilgit Baltistan province) are blessed (or cursed?) by snowcapped mountain ranges, among the highest in the world. They are majestic heavenly scenery, potential to attract international tourists, but with current situation in Pakistan, tourism is not in good shape anyway. While most tourists come in summer, I arrived in Chapursan in winter, when sunshine does not come to villages for two and a half months continuously. Unlike most parts of Pakistan, the people in Hunza and Gojal believe in Ismaili sect of Islam, which are very moderate and forward-looking. Good education to both boys and girls result in the highest literacy rate nationwide. The Ismiali spiritual leader, His Highness Aga Khan insisted that girl education has to be prioritized as woman will [...]

January 11, 2015 // 0 Comments

Decorated Palms

Girls decorate their palms for wedding celebration in the village.   There, under the shades of the mountains, you will freeze at the land with no sunshine… People of Hunza in Northern Pakistan warned me when I attempted to move further north, closer to the mountainous border of China and Afghanistan. Hunza and Gojal in Northern Areas of Pakistan (now known as Gilgit Baltistan province) are blessed (or cursed?) by snowcapped mountain ranges, among the highest in the world. They are majestic heavenly scenery, potential to attract international tourists, but with current situation in Pakistan, tourism is not in good shape anyway. While most tourists come in summer, I arrived in Chapursan in winter, when sunshine does not come to villages for two and a half months continuously. Unlike most parts of Pakistan, the people in Hunza and Gojal believe in Ismaili sect of Islam, which are very moderate and forward-looking. Good education to both boys and girls result in the highest literacy rate nationwide. The Ismiali spiritual leader, His Highness Aga Khan insisted that girl education has to be prioritized as woman will teach the whole family. Mehmannavazi, or hospitality, is the way of life here, as the culture [...]

January 11, 2015 // 0 Comments

Strategic Location

The Baltit Fort, used to be the seat of Mir (King) of Hunza, is located on strategic location top of a hill, watching the whole valley. The fort is listed as UNESCO World Heritage site.   There, under the shades of the mountains, you will freeze at the land with no sunshine… People of Hunza in Northern Pakistan warned me when I attempted to move further north, closer to the mountainous border of China and Afghanistan. Hunza and Gojal in Northern Areas of Pakistan (now known as Gilgit Baltistan province) are blessed (or cursed?) by snowcapped mountain ranges, among the highest in the world. They are majestic heavenly scenery, potential to attract international tourists, but with current situation in Pakistan, tourism is not in good shape anyway. While most tourists come in summer, I arrived in Chapursan in winter, when sunshine does not come to villages for two and a half months continuously. Unlike most parts of Pakistan, the people in Hunza and Gojal believe in Ismaili sect of Islam, which are very moderate and forward-looking. Good education to both boys and girls result in the highest literacy rate nationwide. The Ismiali spiritual leader, His Highness Aga Khan insisted that [...]

January 11, 2015 // 0 Comments

Fort in the Mist

The Baltit Fort is located in Baltit village, uphill from Karimabad, right under snowcapped mountains. The Baltit Fort is listed as UNESCO world heritage site since 2004. The fort is located strategically on top of a hill, viewing the whole Hunza valley. The fort was the place of residence of Mir (King) of Hunza until the independence of Pakistan.   There, under the shades of the mountains, you will freeze at the land with no sunshine… People of Hunza in Northern Pakistan warned me when I attempted to move further north, closer to the mountainous border of China and Afghanistan. Hunza and Gojal in Northern Areas of Pakistan (now known as Gilgit Baltistan province) are blessed (or cursed?) by snowcapped mountain ranges, among the highest in the world. They are majestic heavenly scenery, potential to attract international tourists, but with current situation in Pakistan, tourism is not in good shape anyway. While most tourists come in summer, I arrived in Chapursan in winter, when sunshine does not come to villages for two and a half months continuously. Unlike most parts of Pakistan, the people in Hunza and Gojal believe in Ismaili sect of Islam, which are very moderate and forward-looking. [...]

January 11, 2015 // 0 Comments

Spiritual Leader

The people of Hunza are loyal adherents of Ismailism. They usually put the picture of their spiritual leader, His Highness Aga Khan, in the most respected place in the house.   There, under the shades of the mountains, you will freeze at the land with no sunshine… People of Hunza in Northern Pakistan warned me when I attempted to move further north, closer to the mountainous border of China and Afghanistan. Hunza and Gojal in Northern Areas of Pakistan (now known as Gilgit Baltistan province) are blessed (or cursed?) by snowcapped mountain ranges, among the highest in the world. They are majestic heavenly scenery, potential to attract international tourists, but with current situation in Pakistan, tourism is not in good shape anyway. While most tourists come in summer, I arrived in Chapursan in winter, when sunshine does not come to villages for two and a half months continuously. Unlike most parts of Pakistan, the people in Hunza and Gojal believe in Ismaili sect of Islam, which are very moderate and forward-looking. Good education to both boys and girls result in the highest literacy rate nationwide. The Ismiali spiritual leader, His Highness Aga Khan insisted that girl education has to be [...]

January 11, 2015 // 0 Comments

Wedding Preparation

Women in Karimabad prepare meal for wedding procession. The compulsory traditional dish is called sharbat,  sticky porridge made from butter and flour, and is always cooked by men.   There, under the shades of the mountains, you will freeze at the land with no sunshine… People of Hunza in Northern Pakistan warned me when I attempted to move further north, closer to the mountainous border of China and Afghanistan. Hunza and Gojal in Northern Areas of Pakistan (now known as Gilgit Baltistan province) are blessed (or cursed?) by snowcapped mountain ranges, among the highest in the world. They are majestic heavenly scenery, potential to attract international tourists, but with current situation in Pakistan, tourism is not in good shape anyway. While most tourists come in summer, I arrived in Chapursan in winter, when sunshine does not come to villages for two and a half months continuously. Unlike most parts of Pakistan, the people in Hunza and Gojal believe in Ismaili sect of Islam, which are very moderate and forward-looking. Good education to both boys and girls result in the highest literacy rate nationwide. The Ismiali spiritual leader, His Highness Aga Khan insisted that girl education has to be prioritized as [...]

January 11, 2015 // 0 Comments

Respected

Mister Aminullah is a respected man from Karimabad, Hunza, Pakistan.   There, under the shades of the mountains, you will freeze at the land with no sunshine… People of Hunza in Northern Pakistan warned me when I attempted to move further north, closer to the mountainous border of China and Afghanistan. Hunza and Gojal in Northern Areas of Pakistan (now known as Gilgit Baltistan province) are blessed (or cursed?) by snowcapped mountain ranges, among the highest in the world. They are majestic heavenly scenery, potential to attract international tourists, but with current situation in Pakistan, tourism is not in good shape anyway. While most tourists come in summer, I arrived in Chapursan in winter, when sunshine does not come to villages for two and a half months continuously. Unlike most parts of Pakistan, the people in Hunza and Gojal believe in Ismaili sect of Islam, which are very moderate and forward-looking. Good education to both boys and girls result in the highest literacy rate nationwide. The Ismiali spiritual leader, His Highness Aga Khan insisted that girl education has to be prioritized as woman will teach the whole family. Mehmannavazi, or hospitality, is the way of life here, as the culture [...]

January 11, 2015 // 0 Comments

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